49e FD Column: Maatschappelijk belang onderbelicht in nieuwe Europese privacyregels

Deze column stond in Het Financieele Dagblad van 14 juni 2018. Volg deze link voor mijn eerdere FD columns.

Met veel tamtam zijn op 25 mei strenge Europese privacyregels van kracht geworden. Las u niet over de Algemene Verordening Gegevensbescherming (AVG) in de krant, dan stroomde uw inbox wel vol met smeekbedes om toestemming voor diensten waarvan u niet eens wist dat u daarop geabonneerd was.

Toch bieden de AVG en andere privacywetten nauwelijks antwoord op prangende digitale kwesties van vandaag en morgen, door vooral nadruk te leggen op transparantie en controle voor het individu. Die nadruk is historisch te verklaren, maar tegenwoordig vaak illusoir en leidt af van belangrijke vragen over de maatschappelijke impact van nieuwe technologieën als kunstmatige intelligentie. Hoog tijd voor een sterkere nadruk op de maatschappelijke waarde van privacy in recht en beleid.

Illustratie: Hein de Kort voor Het Financieele Dagblad

De eerste sporen van privacy voeren terug naar het oude Egypte en Griekenland, waar voormalig soldaten en bevrijde slaven zelfbeschikking verwierven over lichaam, huis en akker. De Bijbel en de Koran wijzen ook op het belang van een fysieke en innerlijke rustplek voor het gebed. Met de opkomst van fotografie werd het mogelijk in een flits personen en hun relaties in kaart te brengen. Vele incidenten later publiceerden twee rechters van het Amerikaanse Hooggerechtshof hun legendarische artikel The Right to Privacy in de Harvard Law Review van 1890. Samuel Warren en Louis Brandeis definieerden deze nieuwe, relationele dimensie van privacy als ‘het recht om alleen gelaten te worden’.

In 1967 waarschuwde Amerikaans wetenschapper Alan Westin in zijn geniale boek Privacy and Freedom voor de risico’s van massale automatisering van overheidsdatabases. Westin definieerde de informationele privacy als, kort gezegd, recht op transparantie en controle wie, wat, voor welke doeleinden met jouw privé-informatie doet. Westerse landen vertaalden zijn pleidooi in de jaren ’70 naar een recht op informationele zelfbeschikking en kwamen in 1980 een invloedrijke conventie overeen in de Raad van Europa, die nog steeds het fundament vormt van datawetten wereldwijd, zoals de AVG.

Niemand kan meer volledig overzien tot hoever onze digitale schaduw reikt, laat staan er rationeel over beslissen

De lichamelijke, ruimtelijke, relationele en informationele dimensies van privacy hebben zich ontwikkeld in het voetspoor van technologische enmaatschappelijke ontwikkelingen. Maar zij volstaan niet meer. Al in 2009 stelde de Nederlandse privacytoezichthouder in het rapport ‘Onze Digitale Schaduw’ dat iedere burger in duizenden commerciële en overheidsdatabanken stond geregistreerd. En zong vervolgens het bekende liedje van Westin: ‘meer transparantie en controle’ voor de burger. De rekensom sloeg de spijker op de kop, maar met hun oplossing sloegen ze de plank mis. In 2012 becijferde twee wetenschappers dat u 76 werkdagen per jaar nodig hebt om al die kleine privacylettertjes te lezen. Heeft u al die e-mails over de AVG gelezen, of gewoon weggeklikt? Niemand kan meer volledig overzien tot hoever onze digitale schaduw reikt, laat staan er rationeel over beslissen.

Bovendien beslist technologie vaak voor ons, en over ons. In een oogwenk, zonder dat wij begrijpen hoezeer die beslissingen ons leven en onze samenleving ingrijpend veranderen. Verzekeraar Zürich lanceerde in januari FaceQuote in het VK, een levensverzekering op basis van een selfie. Zelflerende software analyseert 1000 datapunten in een gezicht, vergelijkt deze met ‘biodemografische’ data en bepaalt zo leeftijd, verslavingen, levensverwachting – kortom het risico. Een gepersonaliseerde premie volgt terwijl u wacht, tenzij het algoritme u afkeurt. De historische data en de beslismodellen achter FaceQuote zijn, net als bij zelfrijdende auto’s, bedrijfsgeheim. En wat is de maatschappelijke optelsom? Discriminatie en sociale exclusie zijn reële risico’s. De AVG verscherpt vooral de vereisten voor transparantie en toestemming.

Privacy wordt met recht de moeder van alle grondrechten genoemd. Zonder privacy geen vrijheid van vergadering, godsdienst of meningsuiting. Maar de AVG biedt met name een verbeterde joystick aan het individu om dataverwerkingen toe te staan en leidt daarom vaak af van de inhoud. Recht en beleid zouden minder nadruk moeten leggen op het proces en toestemming, maar juist op de vraag hoe onze oncontroleerbare digitale schaduw en nieuwe toepassingen zoals FaceQuote in te passen in onze vrije en open samenleving. In aanvulling op de vier bestaande dimensies, die van groot belang blijven, is het, al was het maar als geheugensteuntje, tijd voor een vijfde dimensie: maatschappelijke privacy.

39 thoughts on “49e FD Column: Maatschappelijk belang onderbelicht in nieuwe Europese privacyregels”

  1. Hey there this is somewhat of off topic but I was wanting to know if blogs useWYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding know-how so I wanted to get advice from someone with experience.Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  2. I wanted to let you all know that I added freeproxy lists. These lists should update every 60 minutes.These are free proxies and they may not always workthe best. But, you should be able to use them in your SEO tools.

  3. Fantastic beat ! I wish to apprentice at the same time
    as you amend your web site, how could i subscribe for a blog web
    site? The account helped me a applicable deal.
    I were a little bit familiar of this your broadcast offered vivid transparent concept

  4. Hi, I do think this is a great web site. I stumbledupon it ;)
    I’m going to come back once again since I bookmarked it.

    Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to
    help others.

  5. you’re in reality a just right webmaster. The site loading velocity is amazing.
    It sort of feels that you are doing any unique trick.
    Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you’ve done a magnificent
    process in this topic!

  6. I like the valuable information you provide in your articles.

    I’ll bookmark your weblog and check again here frequently.
    I am quite certain I will learn many new stuff right here!
    Good luck for the next!

  7. Hi there, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just curious if you get a lot
    of spam responses? If so how do you reduce it, any plugin or anything you can recommend?

    I get so much lately it’s driving me insane so any assistance is very much appreciated.

  8. hello there and thank you for your information – I’ve certainly
    picked up something new from right here. I did however expertise a
    few technical points using this site, since I experienced to reload the
    web site lots of times previous to I could get it to load correctly.
    I had been wondering if your hosting is OK?
    Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and could damage your high quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords.
    Anyway I am adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for a lot more of your respective exciting content.
    Make sure you update this again soon.

  9. Hey, how’s it going?

    I want to pass along some very important news that everyone needs to hear!

    In December of 2017, Donald Trump made history by recognizing Jerusalem as the captial of Israel. Why is this big news? Because by this the Jewish people of Israel are now able to press forward in bringing about the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible.

    Jewish Rabbis have publicly announced that their Messiah will be revealed in the coming years who will be a leader and spiritual guide to all nations, gathering all religions under the worship of one God.

    Biblical prophecy tells us that this Jewish Messiah who will take the stage will be the antichrist “who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” (2 Thessalonians 2:4). For a time, he will bring about a false peace, but “Therefore when you see the ‘abomination of desolation,’ spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (Matthew 24:15)…then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matthew 24:21).

    “Little children, it is the last hour; and as you have heard that the Antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have come, by which we know that it is the last hour” (1 John 2:18).

    “The coming of the lawless one is according to the working of Satan, with all power, signs, and lying wonders, and with all unrighteous deception among those who perish, because they did not receive the love of the truth, that they might be saved. And for this reason God will send them strong delusion, that they should believe the lie, that they all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness” (2 Thessalonians 2:9-12).

    More importantly, the power that runs the world wants to put a RFID microchip in our body making us total slaves to them. This chip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in the Bible, more specifically in Revelation 13:16-18:

    “He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

    Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666.”

    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards. Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency. This Mark couldn’t be spiritual because the word references two different physical locations. If it was spiritual it would just say in the forehead. RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency. It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it! We must grow strong in Jesus. AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    “Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name” (Revelation 14:9-11).

    People have been saying the end is coming for many years, but we needed two key things. One, the Third Temple, and two, the technology for a cashless society to fulfill the prophecy of the Mark of the Beast.

    Visit http://WWW.BIBLEFREEDOM.COM to see proof for these things and why the Bible trul is the word of God!

    If you haven’t already, it is time to seek God with all your heart. Jesus loves you more than you could imagine. He wants to have a relationship with you and redeem you from your sins. Turn to Him and repent while there is still hope! This is forever…God bless!

  10. Hi, I do think this is an excellent web site. I stumbledupon it ;) I may revisit yet again since i have bookmarked it.
    Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be
    rich and continue to help other people.

  11. The company added that negotiations with competitors aimed to improve exhaust technology without involving any “secret agreement.” Volkswagen said it will investigate the allegations and respond later.

  12. They had a very productive conversation about keeping the media platforms open for 2020,” said adviser Kellyanne Conway Wednesday morning. “The president is very concerned about what he sees as losing followers or people being blocked for certain actions. That’s obvious.

  13. Now, the two are already plotting their first ever live performance of the song. Taylor Swift and Brendon Urie will open the Billboard Music Awards from Las Vegas on Wednesday, May 1, and we are beyond here for it.

  14. Lillard had enjoyed competing on the big stage against the Oklahoma City Thunder — especially fellow stars Russell Westbrook and Paul George.

  15. Very good site you have here but I was curious if you knew of any community forums that cover the same topics
    discussed here? I’d really love to be a part of online community where I
    can get responses from other knowledgeable individuals that share the same interest.
    If you have any suggestions, please let me know.
    Appreciate it!

  16. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my
    blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
    I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something
    like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading
    your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

  17. Fantastic goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you’re just extremely magnificent.
    I really like what you’ve acquired here, certainly like what you are stating and the
    way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still take care of to keep it smart.
    I can’t wait to read far more from you. This is really a wonderful web
    site.

  18. They’re still talented and skilled. They’re generally smart. The unity has become uneven. That ruthless thing, however, has never been more elusive than this season – and it has carried over into the first five games of these playoffs.

  19. Incredible! This blog looks just like my old one!
    It’s on a totally different subject but it has pretty much the same layout and design.
    Great choice of colors!

  20. whoah this blog is excellent i love studying your articles.
    Keep up the good work! You understand, many people are searching
    round for this information, you could aid them greatly.

  21. Thanks for revealing your ideas. I’d personally also like to convey that video games have been ever before evolving. Technology advances and revolutions have made it simpler to create authentic and enjoyable games. These kind of entertainment games were not as sensible when the real concept was being tried. Just like other areas of technologies, video games way too have had to grow as a result of many decades. This itself is testimony for the fast development of video games.

  22. Does your blog have a contact page? I’m having a tough
    time locating it but, I’d like to shoot you an email.
    I’ve got some recommendations for your blog you might be interested in hearing.
    Either way, great blog and I look forward to seeing it improve over time.

  23. Thanks for revealing your ideas. I would also like to convey that video games have been actually evolving. Today’s technology and innovations have assisted create realistic and active games. These kind of entertainment games were not really sensible when the actual concept was first being attempted. Just like other forms of technologies, video games also have had to progress by way of many generations. This itself is testimony towards fast growth and development of video games.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.